Cassettes in VCR 2.0

The first beta release of VCR 2.0 was focused on improving how the request matchers work so users can easily customize them to their needs.

The second beta, released yesterday, includes a bunch of changes to the cassette format. Unfortunately, cassettes recorded with VCR 1.x are not compatible with VCR 2.0. I imagine this may make upgrading painful for some users (though, I’m hopeful the pain will be minimal), and I thought it worthwhile to explain the reasons for all the changes.

YAML issues

YAML is a great serialization format. It’s the most human-readable and human-editable format I know of (both of which I consider to be very important for VCR). It’s been the only serialization format for VCR cassettes from the first release.

However, it’s not without issues. Syck, the YAML engine in ruby 1.8, has a number of unfortunate bugs. I’ve had multiple reports of syck segfaulting due to particular data in the VCR cassette. In addition, it removes spaces from whitespace-only lines. A string like "1\n \n2", when round-tripped through syck, results in "1\n\n2"–a string of one less character. This can cause problems for HTTP clients that depend on the “Content-Length” header accurately matching the length of the response body. Mechanize, for example, will raise an error.

Psych, the new YAML engine in ruby 1.9 written by tenderlove, is much improved. Since 1.7.0, VCR has attempted to use psych when it is avaiable. However, psych also occasionally has segfaulting/memory corruption issues.

New Serializers!

VCR 2.0 allows you to choose from several different serializers, or even provide your own. This can be useful to work around an issue with either sych or psych, or simply because you prefer another format (e.g. JSON). VCR 2.0 now has 4 built in serializers:

  • YAML
  • Syck
  • Psych
  • JSON

YAML is still the default, and uses the standard library YAML after requiring “yaml”. This could wind up using either syck or psych, depending upon your ruby interpreter. The Syck and Psych serializers are useful as a way to force those libraries to be used. Syck is particularly useful when you have a project that needs to run on 1.8 and 1.9, so that the same YAML library gets used regardless of the ruby interpreter version. The JSON serializer uses multi_json so that it supports a variety of JSON backends.

Here’s how to pick a serializer:

# use the JSON serializer for a particular cassette...
VCR.use_cassette("example", :serialize_with => :json) do
  # make an HTTP request

# ...or use the JSON serializer for all cassettes
VCR.configure do |config|
  config.default_cassette_options = { :serialize_with => :json }

Providing Your Own Custom Serializer

It’s fairly trivial to provide your own serializer. You need to provide an object that implements three methods:

  • file_extension
  • serialize(hash)
  • deserialize(string)

Here’s an example using ruby’s marshal library:

serializer =
serializer.instance_eval do
  def file_extension

  def serialize(hash)

  def deserialize(string)

VCR.configure do |config|
  config.cassette_serializers[:marshal] = serializer
  config.default_cassette_options = { :serialize_with => :marshal }

Cassettes are More Portable

VCR 1.x serialized some structs directly to YAML. This caused the classes (VCR::HTTPInteraction, VCR::Request and VCR::Response) to be named directly in the cassette. In 2.0, VCR passes a simple hash to the serializer, so these class names no longer show up in the cassette file. Besides making it possible to use different serializers, this also makes the VCR cassette format much more portable. You can read and use a VCR cassette without loading VCR now! It opens up the possibility to use a VCR cassette from other languages as well.

Now With Less Normalization

VCR 1.x extensively normalized each HTTP Interaction. VCR originally only worked with FakeWeb and Net::HTTP. As I expanded VCR to work with many other libraries, I tried to ensure that the cassette that resulted from a particular set of recorded HTTP interactions would be the same, regardless of the HTTP client library or stubbing library used. At the time, it made sense to me that since a VCR cassette is agnostic about which HTTP client library was used, it should be the same for the same set of HTTP interactions. Net::HTTP normalizes header keys to lower case, so VCR 1.x performed the same normalization on the headers stored in the cassette. On playback, it would de-normalize as necessary; if the header key was content-type, it would be de-normalized as Content-Type. Theoretically, this would have allowed you to change your implementation to use a different HTTP library, and the VCR cassette should continue to playback just fine.

Unfortunately, the de-normalization doesn’t always work properly. If a header is recorded as etag, it gets de-normalized to Etag even though it may originally have been ETag. This is in fact an issue when using VCR with Fog.

So, in VCR 2.0, I’ve removed this normalization. You’ll see more variance in the data that gets recorded by an identical HTTP request from different HTTP libraries.

New recorded_at metadata

VCR 2.0 now includes a recorded_at timestamp for each HTTP Interaction. This allows the re_record_interval cassette option to work much more accurately. Previously, VCR used the cassette file’s modification time, but this may not be accurate, especially when the file on disk changes due to your source control (i.e. if you change git branches or whatever).

New recorded_with metadata

VCR 2.0 also includes a bit of metadata about the cassette as a whole: recorded_with will be a string like "VCR 2.0.0". Theoretically, if any other tool like VCR comes along and wanted to adopt the same fixture format, it could use this to identify itself as well.

I’ve wanted to make changes to the VCR cassette format for awhile, but have held off for fear of making breaking changes. This bit of metadata should make future format changes much easier to make in a backwards-compatible way, as it will identify the format version that was used to record the cassette so it can be easily and automatically upgraded.


The upgrade notes contain instructions for how to upgrade from VCR 1.x. If you’re curious to see examples of how the cassette format changed, take a look at a 1.x cassette compared to the same cassette in 2.0 format.

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